Everybody is obliged to take rescue action to the best of their abilities and skills if an accident has occurred or a person is otherwise in peril. This is why learning and maintaining first aid skills is so important.
If a person suddenly loses consciousness, follow these instructions:
- Can you wake the person?
Try to wake them up by speaking to them and shaking them. If the person does not wake up:
- Call the emergency number 112.
You can also shout for help and ask somebody present to make the emergency call. Always follow the instructions provided by the Emergency Response Centre. After this, position the person on their back and find out if they are breathing normally.
- Open the airway.
Tilt the victim’s head by lifting their chin while pressing their forehead with your other hand. At the same time, watch, listen and feel the breathing. Is their chest moving? Can you hear the sound of breathing? Do you feel the air flow on your cheek? Make an assessment on whether the breathing is normal or abnormal, or if the person is not breathing. If you have any doubts, act as if the person was not breathing normally. If the person is not breathing normally or at all:
- Start CPR.
Place the heel of your hand over the centre of the person’s chest; then, place your other hand on top of the first hand. Your fingers should be laced together. With arms straight, push straight down on the chest thirty (30) times so that the chest compresses 5 to 6 centimeters. Let the chest recoil between compressions. The average compression frequency should be 100 times per minute but should not exceed 120 times per minute. Count the compressions aloud.
- Give two breaths.
Open the airway. Place your mouth tightly over the victim’s mouth and pinch the nostrils shut with your fingers. Calmly breathe air into the victim’s lungs. During the breath, ensure that the victim’s chest rises (moves). Repeat the breath. The length of the two breaths is 5 seconds.
- Continue CPR non-stop with a rhythm of 30:2,
until the victim wakes up and moves, opens their eyes and breathes normally, medical professionals tell you to stop or you become too physically tired to continue.
Other first aid instructions
The Finnish Red Cross has a comprehensive information package on its website, including first aid instructions for different situations.